1.4 HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
With proper precautions, retrofitting should pose little to no threat to the health and safety of the occupants or to those doing the work. Though most building materials and renovation work can be potentially hazardous, risk factors should be low if materials are handled with care and work is performed with safety in mind. Always read and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for safety procedures when working with various materials.
Safety reminders for each type of retrofit job are noted in the sections that follow. This section provides general construction safety tips and guidelines. Figure 1-1 shows some examples of protective gear namely a hard hat, respirator mask, work boots, gloves, coveralls and safety goggles.
General construction safety tips
Know how to use and handle all tools with care, including rental equipment. Complicated equipment such as power nailers, sprayers and powder-actuated fasteners require special instruction and practice.
Have a first aid kit and an appropriate fire extinguisher nearby and know how to use them.
Protect your back when lifting heavy objects; do not lift and reach at the same time and take special care when handling heavy or bulky objects, especially when going up and down stairs and ladders.
Do not smoke near insulation or fumes.
Watch out for hidden open flames like pilot lights.
Keep your work site well organized with tools out of the way of traffic and give yourself plenty of clear space to manoeuvre.
Make sure that the work space is well lighted and ventilated and that fall protection barriers are in place where needed.
Ensure sufficient and proper electrical supply for power tools.
Wear appropriate protective clothing, footwear, helmets, hearing protection, masks and goggles for the job at hand.
Avoid working in an attic on a hot day. Heat stress can cause accidents and serious illness.
1.4.1 Asbestos and vermiculite insulation
An older home may contain insulation that is wholly or partly asbestos (usually white or greyish-white in colour) and may be in a powder or semifibrous form. If you find asbestos, check with your local or regional health authority to determine if you should consult a professional qualified to work with asbestos.
Some vermiculite insulation may contain asbestos fibres. From the 1920s to 1990, a vermiculite ore produced by the Libby Mine in Montana, USA, may have contained amphibole asbestos. It was sold in Canada as Zonolite® Attic Insulation and possibly as other brands.
Not all vermiculite insulation produced before 1990 contains asbestos fibres. However, to be safe in the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is reasonable to assume that if your home has older vermiculite insulation, it may contain some asbestos.
If vermiculite is contained in walls or attic spaces and is not disturbed, it poses very little risk to occupant health. However, if it is exposed or disturbed as it might be during a renovation, it can cause health risks. Asbestos inhalation is associated with asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma.
If you find vermiculite insulation in your home, do not disturb it. Refer to Health and safety considerations for energy-efficient renovations for more information.
If you suspect mould growth in your home, it must be thoroughly removed, the affected areas cleaned and disinfected, and contaminated materials properly disposed of. To control and reduce the potential for mould growth, control sources of moisture, maintain indoor humidity at recommended levels (see Part 2.4, Control of moisture flow), and remedy water infiltration and leakage.
For detailed information, refer to Guide to addressing moisture and mould indoors.
Radon is a radioactive gas that is colourless, odourless and tasteless. Radon is produced by the breakdown of uranium, a naturally occurring material found in soil, rocks and groundwater. When radon is released from the ground into the air, it is diluted to low concentrations and is not a concern. However, in enclosed spaces, like houses, it can sometimes accumulate to high levels, which can be a health risk. The only way to know if radon is present in your home is to perform a radon test.
For more information on testing your home for radon and reducing radon levels in your home, refer to Health and safety considerations for energy-efficient renovations.
1.4.4 Protecting yourself and your family
Many materials give off particles, fibers or vapours during installation that can be harmful to the installer and anyone in the immediate area. Even natural materials such as sawdust and plaster dust can be harmful. Often, the hazard is not from the primary material, but from binders, solvents, stabilizers or other additives.
To retrofit safely and effectively, maintain a clean work area, separate it from the rest of the house and follow the guidelines below:
Bag and properly dispose of all waste materials.
Keep fibrous and vapour-generating materials well sealed until they are needed, and close the containers at the end of the workday.
Vacuum the work area daily to remove fibers and dust.
Provide ventilation for the work area and isolate it from the rest of the house by closing doors or hanging curtains of plastic.
Provide extra ventilation for the rest of the house while the work is in progress and during any curing or drying period.
Rags and sawdust exposed to finishes may spontaneously combust. Carefully follow disposal directions for these products.
1.4.5 Insulation and other particulate materials
Fibrous insulation materials such as glass fibre and mineral wool can easily irritate the skin, eyes and respiratory system. Disposable lightweight coveralls or loose, thick clothing with long sleeves and tight cuffs will help minimize skin irritations. Gloves and special barrier creams that protect the skin when working with fibrous materials are available from safety supply houses and some building supply stores.
Wear goggles when there is any possibility of insulation dust coming in contact with the eyes. Eyes can easily become irritated or inflamed by brittle fibres, and permanent damage can result. Wear a hard hat to prevent head injuries, bumps and cuts (watch out for exposed roofing nails in the attic) and to protect your hair from insulation particles.
Avoid breathing insulation, wood and plastic dusts. Wear a well-designed, snug-fitting half-mask respirator with a particulate filter when handling glass fibre, mineral wool and cellulose fibre insulation.
If opening existing attics, wall cavities or ceilings, be especially cautious. Wear a well-fitted mask with replacement cartridges to avoid inhaling dust, pollens, mould spores and debris associated with bats, mice and other vermin. A half-mask respirator with a high efficiency particulate arrester (HEPA) filter cartridge is recommended. These are available through safety supply houses. Buy a supply of filters rated for the material you will be using and change the filters according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Rigid polystyrene insulation is essentially an inert material, but it can shed particles, so use a face mask when cutting board stock. However, note that polyurethane insulations give off harmful vapours when being cut or sprayed in place. The vapour causes skin and eye irritation and breathing difficulties, even at low levels of exposure, so ventilate well.
When applying the spray-in-place material, contractors take special safety precautions and use respirators. If you plan to have spray plastic foam insulation installed inside your home, make sure you provide additional ventilation until the material has cured. Curing time is generally between 24 and 48 hours.
Sealants and caulking materials have widely different chemical compositions. Most sealants use solvents to keep the material pliable until it is installed. Once applied, the solvents evaporate and release fumes as the material sets or cures. These fumes can cause respiratory irritation or other allergic reactions. Make sure the work area is well ventilated and provide additional ventilation to the home during the curing period, which can vary from days to weeks.
1.4.6 Lead-based paint
Older homes, especially those built before 1950, were often painted with lead-based paint. Exercise caution when working with windows, doors, trim work, wood siding or porches of older homes. For additional information, refer to the Lead-based paint article on the Government of Canada website.
TECHNICAL NOTE: Do not use a household vacuum cleaner especially when removing drywall dust. Drywall dust can damage the vacuum motor as well as furnace fan motors and may void their warranties. If you can only sweep up the material, wet it first to prevent particles from becoming airborne. Vacuum your clothing to avoid spreading dust and insulation material around the house. Wash work clothes separately from other clothing.
A wet/dry vacuum cleaner (such as a Shop-Vac®) with a HEPA filter is the preferred type of machine to use to clean up fibers and dust. Attach an extension hose to the exhaust port of the vacuum cleaner to discharge it to the outside to ensure that any particles travelling through the filter are not recirculated in the household air.
1.4.8 Retrofitting for the hypersensitive
You or a member of your family may have hypersensitivities to certain building materials. People with allergies, asthma or chemical sensitivities might be more susceptive. Seek professional advice concerning building materials you intend to use in your home if you believe there may be any related health issues.
1.4.9 Aging in place
Aging in place is being able to maintain your lifestyle in your existing home as your needs change with age. This often requires making modifications to your home to ensure you maintain your comfort, safety, and independence. These modifications can range from simple adjustments such as adding railings, grab bars, more lighting, and replacing fixtures and appliances with more convenient products, to major renovations such as widening doorways, adding a main floor bedroom, or installing an accessible bathtub or shower. When undertaking any renovation, you should consider implementing aging-in-place modifications for future needs.
1.4.10 Home resiliency to weather events
Resiliency of a home is another aspect to consider when performing renovations. As extreme weather events related to climate change (storms, wildfires, extreme heat and floods) are becoming more frequent and intense, the resiliency of a home becomes an increasingly important subject. When performing retrofits, consider measures that can reduce the impacts associated with these extreme weather events, while also considering backup power generation for when electrical power is lost.
Many resiliency measures can be implemented as you make your home more comfortable and energy efficient. Here are a few tips how:
Adding insulation and in particular air sealing reduces the risk of water penetration into your basement or crawlspace by sealing all cracks and holes in the foundation’s walls, around window frames and any exterior doorways, as well as grading any exterior soil or other surfaces so the water is directed away from the foundation.
Adding a secondary battery backup sump pump can help ensure your sump does not overflow during a power outage.
When renovating exterior walls in areas prone to high wind events, adding hurricane ties and anchors between the roof structure and the foundation, or upgrading to shingles and self-adhering roofing underlayment membranes to the entire roof area can help resist wind and the water damage that is often related to it.
To reduce the risk of damage related to wildfire events, consider non-combustible building materials and introduce practices that prevent flying embers from entering any openings in the building envelope. This can include adding 3 mm (1/8 in.) wire mesh to all roof vents and soffit openings.
Finally, consider backup power systems with or without battery storage that can help to keep you safe in your home when the regular power supply is cut off.
You can find more information on the web and discuss resiliency measures with your contractor.